Poduras are tiny wingless white insects. Distributed in greenhouses, hotbeds, pots with indoor flowers. In damp, warm weather, it can appear in the open field. If these parasites are found on the site, urgent measures should be taken, otherwise irreparable harm will be caused to the plantings.
Flower-eating, or flower-sucking - a family of songbirds from the order of passerines. Includes 44 species belonging to two genera.
The flower beetles are found mainly in New Guinea and the Philippines. The rest of the range stretches from India through China to the southern borders of Australasia. They usually live in small groups on trees or in bushes. The flower beetles do not migrate, but remain faithful to their place of birth.
Flower-eating beetles are small-sized birds with short legs and tails. The plumage has a dull color, both sexes are almost the same. In some species, males are distinguished by brighter plumage. The short beaks have projections like small teeth that help the flower beetles to eat sticky fruits. Their tongue is rolled into a tube, which makes it easier to get the nectar. In addition to him, flower beetles feed on berries and fruits, they also do not disdain insects and spiders. The yellow berries are preferred by the Loranthus longiflorus plant from the family of the belt flower and are an important factor in the spread of its seeds.
The nests of flower beetles have a round shape, they are suspended from tree branches and the entrance to them is on the side. Various stalks and cobwebs are used as a building material. In clutch there are from two to four eggs.
How do they look
Garden plots are not inhabited by true insects of the Podurid family, but their relatives from the family Hypogastruridae and Entomobryidae, subclass Collembola - springtails. Real podura live in shallow bodies of water. These insects feed on mosses, lichens and algae.
Outwardly, a white podura (or springtail) living in a garden looks like a miniature caterpillar of a silvery or slightly greenish color. The length of the translucent body of the parasite is from 0.2 to 10 mm. The head is large, with four antennae and a weak mouth. A distinctive feature of the insect is an outgrowth in the back of the body. This is a jumping fork, with its help the springtail is pushed off the ground to make a jump. At rest, the tail of the insect hides under the body.
Podur eggs are round, greenish-yellow, shiny. In 18 - 20 days after laying eggs, the female hatches larvae, exactly repeating the appearance of adult insects. For plants, both adults and newly hatched individuals are dangerous.
The accumulation of podur on the soil looks like a whitish bloom. But during watering, insects begin to bounce. This helps to identify them and distinguish them from other pests such as mealybugs.
Types of springtails that live in garden plots:
- White... It feeds on the topsoil, often appears in greenhouses, hotbeds, in conditions of high humidity and temperature and limited access to sunlight.
- Vegetable... Harms ornamental indoor crops, interferes with the development of seedlings.
- Mushroom... The pest is dangerous for shoots, seedlings, mushrooms, bulbous flowers.
Causes of the appearance and harm of insects
A small number of springtails live permanently in the soil. But in this case, they do not harm the plants, since they feed on soil organic matter. Excessive reproduction of insects begins with the onset of favorable conditions. It provokes an increase in the population - waterlogging of the soil.Organic food is not enough for insects, and they switch to eating roots, stems and leaves of plants.
Podura are especially dangerous for seeds and young seedlings. Insects get inside the seeds, mostly large in size, and eat them out from the inside. As a result, seedlings do not appear after sowing. Plants whose leaves no longer touch the ground cannot be harmed by parasites.
How to fight
The main measure to combat podura is to restore the normal level of soil moisture. Often it is enough to stop watering for a while and wait for the upper layers of the soil to dry, and most of the parasites will die.
But this method will only work if there are not too many pests. When the number of insects is off scale, insecticides will have to be used.
The following preparations are used for soil cultivation:
Insecticide in powder form. It is scattered around the plants in a thin layer.
The drug is in powder form. The method of administration is similar to Bazudin.
The granules are distributed over the soil surface at the rate of 10 g per 1 sq. / M.
When watering, the solution with the poison should soak the soil to a depth of at least 4 cm. A single treatment is enough to completely destroy the sugars in the soil. If there are too many insects, the procedure is repeated after 7 days to destroy the larvae hatched from the eggs. Before and after irrigation with an insecticide, the soil surface must be loosened. This will help remove excess moisture and get to the larvae, which are hiding in the lower layers.
Folk methods of struggle
There are a number of ways to control insects without the use of chemical insecticides:
150 g of powder is poured into 10 liters of hot water and infused for 24-48 hours. Water the soil with infusion. With a small amount of podur, lightly sprinkle the surface of the soil with dry mustard powder.
Infusion of marigolds
The bushes of flowers are poured with water and insisted for 2 days. Use the infusion for watering.
Wood ash mulching
The soil is sprinkled with ash with a layer of 1 cm.
Decoction of chamomile, calendula or yarrow
20 0 g of dry herbs are poured into 5 liters of water, brought to a boil and cooled. The resulting broth is poured over the soil.
In order not to provoke the reproduction of sugars in the garden or in the greenhouse, it is enough to comply with the requirements for the moisture content in the soil. Passion for watering and lack of ventilation is the main provoking factor in the onset of favorable conditions for a comfortable life for parasites.
An effective preventive measure is watering the soil before planting plants with a solution of potassium permanganate. This will help destroy the larvae existing in the soil and prevent their further reproduction. You can also water the soil with hot (80 - 90 degrees) water before sowing or planting seedlings.
The reproduction of podur is the first signal of a violation of the agricultural technology of plant care. Having noticed insects, it is worth reconsidering your approaches to watering. Otherwise, there is a risk of death of the landings.
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