Bird Families

Mouse thymus bicolor - Trichastoma bicolor, species

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Slow ants with interesting behavior and appearance. For advanced breeders.

Delivery within the Moscow Ring Road when ordering from 5000 rubles - free!

Important! If you are going to purchase a queen bee for the farm with only brood, we strongly advise you to keep it in the incubator until 20-40 workers appear. The more workers there are, the less chance that ants will litter in the farm.

When ordering ants to other cities (outside Moscow), a full prepayment is made for the ants themselves and delivery.

general information

Latin name - Meranoplus bicolor... In another way, they are called Fluffy Ants. Distributed in Southeast Asia. Semi-dry and humid forest areas. Colonies in the form of hills with craters are formed in nature.

Content level

They are unpretentious, but require a variety of food. Ants are slow because they rely on their strong protective secretion. The reliability of the formicaria and the arena should be monitored, preventing escapes.

Colony type

Ant families Meranoplus bicolor monogynous, i.e. only one oviparous uterus is present in the colony. Colony of up to 1000 individuals.

Castes and sizes of ants

Queen:

The size: 8 - 9 mm Color: black-brown head and abdomen, chest red-brown, strong chest

The size:3 - 5 mm Color:black-brown head and abdomen, chest red-brown, marked pubescence

Honey and sugar syrup. Various insects, fly preference. Some hobbyists note that ants also collect seeds.

Note: not recommendgive ants insects from the street, they can be infected with a tick or various parasites. Use food insects from the pet store or yourself.

To small families, in which there are less than 100 ants, give insects killed (crushed). They may be frightened of a live and large insect or not overcome.

Humidity and temperature

Arena: Humidity: 30 - 50% Temperature: 18 - 28 ° C

Formicaria: Humidity: 50-70% Temperature: 21-24 ° C

Wintering is not required.

Acrylic formicarium ("Mini +", "Standard", "Standard with arena", etc.) is suitable. The arena can be decorated in the form of a forest floor, using coconut substrate, peat and decorations - driftwood, bark, moss, dry grass, leaves.

Materials (edit)

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Number of species in "sister" taxa

viewMouse thymus bicolorTrichastoma bicolorLesson
genusMouse thymeliaTrichastomaBlyth
familyGround thymeliaPellorneidaeDelacour1946
superfamilySlavkovSylvioidea
infraorderPasserinesPasserida
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fan-tailed Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
classBirdsAves
superclassFour-leggedTetrapodaBroili1913
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
suprasectionEumetazoiEumetazoa
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa
kingdomAnimalsAnimalia
super-kingdomNuclearEukaryotaChatton1925
empireCellular

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of intraspecific territoriality. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines.After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

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Loropetalum - Silk Ribbon Tree

Loropetalum or loropetalum is a highly decorative evergreen shrub from the Hamamelidaceae family of medium size (however, some specimens can reach up to 3-5 meters in height). Homeland China, Japan and Southeast Asia. Leaves are simple, alternate 1-2 cm in length, dark green, brown or brown with a red tint. Flowers up to 5 cm in diameter are collected in a brush and are bunches of petals, similar to ribbons, white, red or pink. During the flowering period (late spring), the plant is very beautiful. Single flowers can appear on the branches throughout the year. Dwarf varieties of loropetalum have been bred, which can be used as ground cover plants.

Loropetalum grows successfully in open ground only in those regions where there is no severe frost in winter (the minimum temperature is not lower than -7 ° -10 ° Celsius). The maximum temperature at which loropetalum is able to survive outdoors is -15 ° -17 °, but subject to careful shelter for the winter.

Growing loropetalum in the garden

Lighting. This plant prefers partial shade. But a few hours under the sun in the morning or evening hours will provide abundant flowering and bright color of the leaves.

Priming. The plant is not very demanding on the quality of the soil, the mechanical composition is ideally light, air-permeable soils, but loropetalum can grow on loams and even in rock crevices, but the soil should be acidic or slightly acidic with a pH of 5.5-7. The root collar of the planted plant should be at ground level. To prevent drying out of roots located close to the surface, it is recommended to mulch the soil under the loropetalum bush.

Watering. Young plants require abundant watering (but do not tolerate stagnant water), and adults with a developed root system gradually become even drought-resistant.

Top dressing. Loropetalum responds well to feeding with organic matter and mineral fertilizers in the spring and summer.

Loropetalum does not require any special care.

Pruning... If desired, the bush can be slightly trimmed - not only to give the crown the desired shape, but also to achieve a variety of leaf colors.Since in many varieties of loropetalum, young foliage has brighter shades. Loropetalum tolerates pruning well, although it is not necessary. It is produced in the spring before the leaves open or after flowering. Pruning usually shortens the one-year growth by 2/3. You can also completely rejuvenate the bush with a tree stump planting. As a result of such pruning, Loropetalum forms a strong growth, a more compact spherical crown is formed, and larger leaves branch and develop.

Reproduction. There are several ways to breed loropetalum.
Perhaps the most convenient of them is vegetative propagation by horizontal layers, since the weeping branches of the bush naturally lean to the ground. To root the shoot, you need to slightly disturb the bark (at the point of contact of the branch with the soil), lay the future layering in a pre-dug groove, then pin or press it to the ground with a heavy object. After the formation of roots, you can separate the layers from the mother liquor.

In the middle of summer, loropetalum can be propagated by semi-lignified cuttings, although they do not take root very easily.
With this method of propagation from strong shoots of the current year, we cut cuttings up to 10 cm long.Crimp all leaves from the cutting, leaving only a couple of the top ones, and place it in a light mixture (sphagnum moss, peat and perlite).
To accelerate the rooting of loropetalum cuttings, you can use a drug that stimulates root formation. After planting the cuttings in pots, they must be covered with a plastic bag to maintain high humidity, placed in a bright place, but not in direct sunlight. They need to be sprayed regularly, but try not to overmoisten the substrate so that the cuttings do not rot. The roots of loropetalum cuttings will begin to grow back in about 4-6 weeks.

Reproduction of loropetalum by seeds is a thankless task and few people succeed. Under natural conditions, loropetalum reproduces by self-seeding, so that young seedlings can be dug up and planted.

Pests and diseases of loropetalum

Loropetalum is not eaten by animals, pests rarely attack, and it is practically not susceptible to disease. However, on alkaline and neutral soils, this plant can develop chlorosis.

Some varieties of loropetalum (for example, Burgundy, Plum Delight, and especially Ruby) are sensitive to deficiencies in essential trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese and boron). Such plants require foliar dressing on the leaves with a solution of appropriate fertilizers.

On clay soils, with stagnant water, or if the plant is planted too deeply, due to a lack of oxygen, the roots of loropetalum can rot. To avoid such problems, you need to properly plant the plant without deepening the root collar.

Loropetalum varieties

The main representatives of the white-flowered form of loropetalum L. chinense:
- variety "Hilier Compacta" - a creeping bush with small white flowers,
- the "Snow Dance" variety has a compact bush,
- "Snow Muffin" variety - super compact, up to 60 cm high, with leathery dark green leaves, suitable for indoor cultivation.

Among the representatives of the red-leaved form of this species (L. chinense var. Rubrum), the most common varieties are Burgundy and Ruby, the first to appear in the United States.
The variety "Burgundy" (aka "Sizzlin's Pink") is interesting in that during the season it changes the color of the leaves from red-purple (in spring) to green-purple (in summer) and bright red (in autumn). The plant reaches a height of 1.8-3 m. It can shed some of its foliage in winter.
The Ruby variety is the most compact, with ruby-red young foliage and bright pink flowers.

Also compact red-leaved loropetalums include:
- variety "Black Pearl" 1-1.5 m high, with greenish-purple foliage and bright pink flowers,
- Canadian variety "Fire Dance" - an erect bush 90-180 cm high, with bright ruby-red leaves that change color: first to a rich red-purple, and then acquiring a green tint, the flowers are dark pink,
- variety "Pippa's Red" - an upright bush up to 1.5 m, with dark purple leaves and bright pink flowers,
- variety "Blush" (aka "Razzleberry", "Pyroki Form", "Raspberry Fringe", "Monrazz" and "Daybreak's Flame") with pink-red young foliage, eventually changing color to greenish, large flowers are pale pink ,
- the "Suzanne" variety is the most compact and rounded of all, with red-purple leaves and pale pink flowers.

Of the vigorous red-leaved varieties of loropetalum, the interesting variety "Zhuzhou Fuchsia" with very dark, almost brown leaves. It is an upright, very large shrub up to 6 m tall, with dark pink flowers. It can be formed by a stem or grown on a trellis.

The Hines Purple Leaf loropetalum (aka Hines Burgundy, Plum Delight, Pizzazz and Carolina Midnight) retains its rich foliage color all year round. It has weeping branches, grows up to 1.8-2.4 m. Young foliage is pink-red, later acquires a bronze tint, small flowers are dark pink.

The Ming Dynasty variety pleases its owners with red flowers.

Variety of loropetalum "Purple Majesty" blooms profusely all year round with bright fuchsia flowers. Young leaves are maroon, adults are bright purple.

An effective variety of loropetalum for the garden - "Bicolor". It is an actively growing bush with dark brown leaves that change color to dark olive. The flowers are white with light pink strokes.

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