Bird Families

Description of the Wren from the Red Book

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The Latin name for wren is troglodytidae. It sounds menacing, but the feathery itself is 9-22 centimeters long and 7-15 grams in weight. Along with kings and hummingbirds, the wren is one of the smallest birds.

The species is attributed to the genus of passerines; it is found in the forests of Russia. The bird leaves them in the fall. The migratory bird returns in mid-April.

Description and features of wren

Wren - bird dense physique. The body of the animal looks round, since it is almost devoid of a neck. It seems that a large and also round head is attached, bypassing it. The tail also gives compactness to the wren. It does not "shine" in length. The typical tail position of a bird is upturned, especially when the bird is sitting. This further hides the length of the tail.

Painted wren in brownish tones. Chestnut shades prevail. They are lighter on the belly. The back of the bird is 3-4 tones darker.

The wren is a very small bird, even smaller than a sparrow

The color and appearance of the bird are similar to the appearance of birds of the warbler family. The difference is the absence of white eyebrows. In warblers, they are clearly expressed.

Another distinctive feature of the wren is its beak. It is thin and curved. It's easy to catch insects like that. Small midges and spiders are the basis of the bird's diet. Actually, therefore, the wren is migratory. In order to stay for the winter, you need to switch to eating frozen berries and seeds. The wren does not compromise, departing to the regions teeming with insects all year round.

Wren on a photo looks miniature. But the real size of the bird is rarely captured. In fact, the feathered one is about half the size of a sparrow.

The strength of the wren's voice seems out of proportion to its mass. The hero of the article has powerful, major singing. The trills of the birds are energetic and slightly crackling, they sound something like "trick-tee-tik".

Listen to the singing of the wren

Lifestyle and habitat

The favorite habitat of the hero of the article is hidden in his name. The bird often hides in the nettle thickets. However, instead of it, the feathered one can use ferns, raspberries, or simply heaps of brushwood in a windbreak.It is his wren that seeks out in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests. It is important that they have undergrowth, windbreaks, everything that litters the territory.

Upturned roots, fallen trunks, piles of brushwood and thickets of shrubs, grasses are necessary for wrens for shelter from predators and nesting. In difficult-to-pass places, passerines hide clutches of eggs. The surrounding trash also serves as a building material for the nests. They are dominated by moss, leaves, small twigs.

If there are thickets, wrens settle in the mountains and in ravines, and near lakes and swamps, and in deserts. Those who settle in areas with a harsh climate are collectively saved from the cold. Birds huddle in several individuals in the nest. Birds pressed against each other reduce heat loss.

By the way, part of the wren population is sedentary. Birds nesting in the northern regions are migratory. However, wrens are also common outside of Russia. Some species of the family live in America, Africa, Asia, and European countries. In Russia, a representative of the passerine genus appears simultaneously with the first spring thawed patches.

Description of the bird

The only representative of the Krapivnikov family from the Sparrow-like family. The Latin name sounds menacing - Troglodytidae, which means "living in a cave." The species is very aptly nicknamed the nut, the root plant for the characteristic features of the external appearance.

What does it look like

Small European bird by weight is twice lighter than a sparrow - only 8-12 g. Length - 9-11 cm. Wingspan - 15-17 cm. The body is dense. The head is large, round. The thin elongated beak is slightly bent downward. A disproportionately short tail is often perky upturned. The plumage is soft, fluffy.

Males and females are of the same color - the top is rusty red, and the bottom is grayish brown. Above the eye there is an indistinct light stripe. On the body there are transverse dark streaks. The juveniles have light chestnut feathers on their heads with a dark border - the main difference from adult animals.

Of all the subspecies differing in morphological characteristics, the house wren is the closest species. The upper part of his body is brown in color, the lower one is of a nut shade.

Character and lifestyle

They live in a closed, isolated - one by one, or in pairs. The birds strictly adhere to the chosen terrain. The males are territorial. With voiced, energetic, slightly crackling singing, they mark their boundaries, driving away unwanted competitors.

At night they gather in small flocks, choosing secluded corners for a joint overnight: dense bushes, windbreaks, shallow earthen burrows. To protect themselves from the cold, they cuddle together, forming a small circle.

Birdies behave very secretively, avoid open spaces, therefore they fly little and reluctantly.

What eats

The main menu consists of insects, spiders, molluscs, crustaceans, invertebrates (caterpillars, beetles, earwigs, grasshoppers, snails, woodlice, millipedes). They seek out food near the surface of the earth, checking mainly damp places: weeds, heaps of brushwood, upturned roots, fallen trunks.

In autumn, with a lack of animal food, birds feed on fruits of berries, plant seeds. Part of the population even accepts algae.

In winter they keep near non-freezing water bodies, catch tadpoles or small fish.

Where dwells

Widely distributed in Eurasia, Western Europe, North America, North Africa. They do not inhabit the European and Asian taiga, steppes and deserts of Russia, and in the south of the country they are found only in winter. In most of the range, the common species predominates.

They live in humid mountainous, coniferous, deciduous, mixed forests. Less often they inhabit treeless areas - plains or rocks. A favorite nesting place is nettle thickets. It is important to have dead wood and forest debris in order to hide from predators.

The family's homeland is the North American continent. Bird watchers believe that real wrens, together with their relatives, flew to Eurasia through the Bering Strait.

Reproduction

From wintering, males are the first to arrive. And, like real men, they build nests. Usually this is the first half of April - the end of May. During this period, the songs sound exceptionally louder, so the gentleman beckons the lady.

The structure looks like a spherical or elongated coconut. Building materials are thin spruce branches, green moss, dry blades of grass, leaves. As a rule, married couples form before the dwelling is completed. The corner you like is lined with down and feathers.

On the nesting site, from 5 to 12 buildings are erected, but only one of them will be chosen by the female.

Within two weeks, the young mother incubates a clutch of 4-7 white eggs with brownish-red spots, the average size of which is 16x12 mm. Both parents feed helpless cubs.

They bring food only to hatched chicks 70-180 times per day, and to 14-day-old ones - 300-500 times. Fledglings leave for 15-16 days. Puberty occurs in a year.

Natural enemies

In the wild, wrens rarely have a lifespan of more than four years. They are hunted by birds of prey, martens, vipers. Jays destroy nests. With a suspicious noise, sensing danger, the birds hide, not making the slightest sound.

A ground enemy seen not far from the nesting site is pursued, driving away with a loud crash. If a threat is impending, they instantly fly away from the nest 5-6 meters to the nearest shelter.

Wintering

Most passerines are sedentary species. They hibernate near ice-free rivers, springs, springs. They feed on invertebrates, roots of aquatic plants, which are sought out in shallow waters. Mostly old individuals remain, leading a solitary lifestyle.

Birds nesting in the northern regions migrate to more favorable winter conditions. Preparations for departure begin in the second half of August - early September. Representatives of the species concentrate outside the forest (lake shores, wastelands).

Wren in the Red Book

There is no critical decrease in the population, but vulnerable subspecies are included in the list of rare, endangered animals.

The main causes of extinction

The closest relatives of wrens are on the verge of extinction. This is due to environmental factors. The decline in species is directly related to destructive habitat conditions and a lack of nesting sites.

Current population situation

In general, the number of wrens does not fluctuate significantly. The following subspecies are listed in the Red Book:

  • Antyoksky shrub - inhabits the South American dry forests,
  • Cuban - lives only in swampy areas overgrown with sword-grass,
  • Commander - Kamchatka Red Book bird inhabiting the Commanders,
  • New Zealand - lives in New Zealand,
  • Slender-billed - found only in mountain forests with limestone rocks,
  • Large Short-billed - breeds in South America, primarily in Colombia.

According to the scientific classification, the extinct species belong to the New Zealand genus - Shrub, as well as Stephen shrub.

Do I need to take measures to protect

Forestry sanitation reduces the number of nesting sites. Therefore, it is important to provide protective breeding grounds for animals.

Biologist-researcher Vladimir Borisovich Zimin proposes to prepare special plexuses of coniferous branches for nesting pairs.

Interesting facts about the bird

  1. A distinctive feature of the species is a strong voice. Singing reaches a volume of 90 dB. This is equivalent to a working vacuum cleaner or a moving tram. Multicolored trills last 5-6 seconds. Their flooded songs with a frequency of 4000-9000 Hz can be heard at a distance of 500 meters.
  2. Sex cannot be determined by color. During the breeding season, females develop a hedgehog patch, and the cloacal protrusion increases. Males do not incubate brood. Also, the male differs from the female in habits. The males are more active, emit many sounds, while the females are more secretive, singing extremely rarely.
  3. Males are unusually polygamous. While their companion is evaporating offspring, they calmly look for a new pair for themselves.
  4. The image of this tiny bird adorned the British farthing, minted from 1937 to 1956.
  5. Ancient Celts, Welsh considered the bird sacred. Until now, she is revered in many European states: England, Ireland, Iceland. Wren is a frequent character in folklore and literary works.

There are still questions about Wren or have something to add? Then write to us about it in the comments, this will make the material more useful, complete and accurate.

Bird species

Ornithologists count 60 representatives of the wren family. In Russia, the common one is mainly found. In length, it grows up to 10 centimeters, weighs about 7-10 grams. The brown plumage of the bird casts red. On the sides of the common wren, transverse streaks are visible, and above the eyes there is a semblance of light eyebrows.

In America, house wren predominates. It is larger than usual by 3-4 centimeters in length. Representatives of the species weigh about 13 grams. The small size does not prevent house birds from climbing into the nests of other birds and destroying their eggs. In particular, the clutches of nuthatches and tits are eaten. Another species of wrens, the long-tailed one, also suffers from the brownie.

Long-tailed wren, as the name implies, is distinguished by the length of its tail. It does not look like short "brushes" of feathers of congeners. The color of the plumage is also different. There is almost no redness in it. Cold shades of brown prevail.

There is also Stephen's shrub wren... He only lives on Stevens Island. Ptakha is distinguished by its brown-olive plumage and inability to fly. The small wings of an even smaller bird are unable to lift it into the air.

However, does Stephen's wren live? Representatives of the species have not been seen for a long time, and therefore are considered extinct. The cats brought to the island are blamed for the death of the population. They caught all the birds unable to fly away from the offenders.

Stephen's birds are otherwise called New Zealand wrensas Stevens Island is off the coast of New Zealand. Once, scientists say, the extinct species lived on the main lands of the country. But, in the 19th century, the territory was chosen by the Maori.

Stephen's or New Zealand wren

The people brought with them rats called Polynesian. Already guessed who exterminated the bush wrens on the continent? The rats considered flightless birds easy prey. That's cause of death of shrub wrens # 1. Cats just "put the squeeze" on the situation.

There are also fictional types of wren. Suffice it to recall the computer game Wowhead. It has pond wren... This unique item bears little resemblance to a bird. The Wren in the game is a vehicle that gives freedom in water and airless space.

Nutrition of the wren

In the fictional world, wrens are not asked to eat or drink. The real bird eats often, filling its stomach to refusal. This is typical of miniature animals. The crumb that their stomach can accommodate is enough for a small amount of energy. Having consumed it, the wren is hungry again. The bird dies without frequent meals.

The diet of wrens includes snails, millipedes, spiders, insect larvae and pupae, caterpillars, eggs of other small birds and invertebrates.

A part of the wren population that remains overwintering in Russia accepts berries on the menu. But, in general, birds try to stay closer to non-freezing springs and rivers. In them, birds get aquatic insects, larvae.

Ⓘ Wren Bubblers

As of June 2018, the genus includes 8 species:

  • Spelaeornis troglodytoides J. Verreaux, 1871 - Strip-chested wren bubbler
  • Spelaeornis chocolatinus Godwin-Austen & Walden, 1875 - Variegated Wren Bubbler
  • Spelaeornis reptatus Bingham, 1903
  • Spelaeornis oatesi Rippon, 1904
  • Spelaeornis kinneari Delacour & Jabouille, 1930
  • Spelaeornis longicaudatus F. Moore, 1854 - Long-tailed wren bubbler
  • Spelaeornis badeigularis Ripley, 1948
  • Spelaeornis caudatus Blyth, 1845 - Red-throated Wren Bubbler

  • Spotted wren bubbler lat. Elachura formosa is a species of birds of the monotypic family Elachuridae. Previously, the species was attributed to the family Timaliidae Timaliidae
  • 1889 - Black-headed Bubblers Spelaeornis David Oustalet, 1877 - Wren Bubblers Sphenocichla Godwin - Austen Walden, 1875 - Short-billed Thymelia
  • Prinia cinereocapilla Spelaeornis badeigularis, Red-throated Wren Bubbler Spelaeornis caudatus Stachyris oglei, Thrush Thymelia
  • Red-throated Wren Bubbler Spelaeornis caudatus Striped Wren Bubbler Spelaeornis troglodytoides Spotted Wren Bubbler Spelaeornis
  • 1877 - Hairy Thymelia 3 species Ptyrticus Hartlaub, 1883 - Thrush Bubblers 1 species Rimator Blyth, 1847 - Rimators 3 species Trichastoma Blyth, 1842
  • austeni marsh thymelia Pellorneum palustre long-tailed wren bubbler Spelaeornis longicaudatus and short-billed thymelia Sphenocichla

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