Bird Families

Arses insularis


A type:Chordates

Keffiyehs, or spearhead snakes (lat.Trimeresurus) - a genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily of pit vipers of the family of vipers.

These snakes got their name for their characteristic appearance, reminiscent of a spear. Their triangular head with a triangular muzzle is sharply separated from their strong torso. Kufis lead a terrestrial or arboreal lifestyle. They are active mainly at twilight and at night. These snakes feed on small rodents, birds and frogs.

The largest species of the genus is the habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis), reaching 1.5 m in length. This snake lives on the islands of Okinawa and Amami. The length of the remaining species, as a rule, does not exceed 1 m. Among them, the most famous is the temple keffiyeh (Trimeresurus wagleri), which is widespread on the Molluk Peninsula and the islands of the Malay Archipelago, eastward to the island of Sulawesi, and in the north to the Philippines. This is a very beautiful snake. Bright yellow transverse rings run on a black-green background, the top of the head is decorated with a yellow pattern, bright yellow stripes are located above the eyes, and a wide black ribbon stretches across the eye to the back edge of the head. Locals often keep kufi in trees near their homes. This is believed to provide family well-being. The temple keffiyeh got its name because a huge number of these snakes were kept in the Snake Temple on Penang Island off the western coast of the Molluk Peninsula.

Biotope and lifestyle in nature

Wet evergreen and deciduous tropical forests, subtropical rigid-leaved forests, light forests and shrubs, flat areas and foothills, the lower belt of mountains up to 800-1000 m above sea level, floodplains of rivers and streams, banks of reservoirs, bamboo thickets, plantations, sometimes in vicinities of cities and towns. Night activity. A woody, climbing species, rarely descends to the ground. It uses hollows, cracks in the bark, abandoned bird nests as shelters, but mostly hides among foliage and branches. It adheres to individual sites, which during the season can be from one to 2-3 trees.

Gender differences

Females are larger and looser than males, while males have proportionally longer tails than females. In males, the tail is long with a characteristic thickening at the base, from the anus it is cylindrical, then passes into a cone. In females, the tail is shorter, without thickening at the base, conical.

Most keffiys require a vertical type terrarium for subtropical animals with local, downward heating (incandescent lamp, mirror lamp), or bottom heating: thermal cord, thermal mat. The minimum terrarium size for one snake is 50x30x50 cm (excluding the height of the fixture). Temperature in a warm corner, at the point of warming up, up to 32-35 ° С during the day. In a cold corner - 20-22 ° С. At night: up to 25 ° С in a warm corner and up to 18 ° С in a cold one. The background temperature during the day is 25-28 ° С, at night - 20-24 ° С. Branches of various lengths and thicknesses should be present throughout the terrarium, including at the heating point, and it should be borne in mind that most branches should be close to horizontal in location. The terrarium is decorated with artificial plants or live non-poisonous plants with strong leaves and woody shoots are placed in pots: monstera, philodendrons, ficuses, etc. The soil in the terrarium is not necessary, but you can use gravel, coconut substrate, sphagnum or cover the bottom of the terrarium with filter paper. A drinker must be installed on the ground. In the terrarium, a stable high humidity is required, for which the terrarium should be sprayed with warm water once a day, the sphagnum should be moist all the time. Humidity is also maintained with the help of a rain installation, or a fog generator connected through a time relay and working 1-2 times a day for 1-2 minutes. It is better to keep the keffiye separately or in a group - 1 male for 1-2 females.

In nature, keffiys feed on various small mammals, birds, amphibians, less often they eat lizards.
In terrarium conditions, keffiys are fed with laboratory mice, frogs, quails, small passerines. Diet for adult snakes: 1 time per week, for young animals - smaller feed: 1 time per 5 days. Starter food for newborn keffiys: frogs and newborn mice. They drink water, for which they should regularly change it in the drinking bowl. Along with the feed, it is necessary to give various mineral supplements, for example: crushed eggshells, preparations containing calcium. Mineral water (Borjomi) can be added to the drinker. Offer concentrated vitamin preparations with feed no more than once a month. Give a well-balanced reptile feed according to the instructions.
For male adult keffiys, a special feeding rhythm is characteristic. They can actively feed only 2-3 months a year, while maintaining the necessary potential until the next season.

Males of keffiys usually become sexually mature at the age of 1.5-2 years, females at the age of 3 years. Ovoviviparous species.
After leaving the hibernation, the snakes are irradiated and fed, adding preparations containing vitamin "E" to the feed for 2-3 weeks. Then males and females are placed next to each other. Copulations last for a long time - from 1 to 5 hours. According to some reports, keffis can mate all year round, but the normal period for this is spring from late February to May, although with a shift in rhythm, both earlier and later mating can be achieved. After mating, after 2 months, and sometimes even earlier, females stop feeding and do not feed until birth, but there are exceptions to this rhythm. In the terrarium where the pregnant female is located, sphagnum should be placed and moistened regularly. After 129-157 days, with fertile mating, childbirth occurs. The female gives birth to 1 to 16 cubs. Babies begin to feed after the first molt.
Of undoubted interest is the ability of females to preserve the sperm of males for very long periods, after which fertilization and normal childbirth occur, this is one of the most important adaptations of this species to adverse environmental conditions.

Seasonal and daily rhythm

The duration of daylight hours and the work of daytime heating during the period of animal activity is 12 hours. Irradiation with UV lamps with UVB 4-5% during daylight hours, such lamps can perform both the function of lighting and irradiation. For irradiation, you can also use erythema lamps - for 5 minutes 3 times a day. In the absence of the above lamps, you can irradiate with household appliances such as UFO from 1 to 5 minutes during a week, from a distance of 50 cm - once a month. When irradiated with erythema lamps and UFO-type devices, the animal must be kept in dry conditions.
It is possible not to adhere to the seasonal rhythm for young animals, but for adult keffiys, in preparation for breeding, the following is necessary. From the end of October, within two to three weeks, daylight hours and the duration of the daytime heaters are gradually decreasing. At 8 o'clock, the snakes stop feeding and the night heating is turned off. Then, at 4 hour daylight hours, turn off the daytime heating, and then, after a couple of days, the lighting. The temperature during the cooling period should be 15-18 ° C. To maintain humidity, the terrarium in one corner is sprayed every two days. Drinking bowls are not removed and are constantly updated. The duration of the cooling period is 1-2 months, under the normal condition of the animal. The snakes are taken out of wintering in the same rhythm in which they were laid, gradually increasing the daylight hours and raising the temperature. At 8 o'clock, the night heating is turned on and food is offered to the keffiys.

additional information

Life expectancy up to 12 years. Kufiya is a poisonous animal, it has a complex poison of neuroparalytic and fibrionolytic action, with a thrombotic effect. Therefore, despite the fact that the venom of this snake is not considered one of the most dangerous poisons among reptiles, and there are few cases of death after being bitten by a white-lipped keffiyeh, it should be borne in mind that keeping such a snake at home is by no means safe!


Cryptelytrops albolabrisT (rimeresurus albolabris)White-lipped keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops andersonii(Trimeresurus andersonii)Keffiyeh Anderson,
Cryptelytrops cantori(Trimeresurus cantori) Keffiyeh of Cantor,
Cryptelytrops erythrurus(Trimeresurus erythrurus)Red-tailed bamboo keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops fasciatus(Trimeresurus fasciatus)Bordered keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops honsonensis
Cryptelytrops insularis(Trimeresurus insularis)Island white-lipped keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops kanburiensis(Trimeresurus kanburiensis)Kanburi bamboo keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops labialis(Trimeresurus labialis)Nicobar bamboo keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops macrops(Trimeresurus macrops)Big-eyed keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus(Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Coastal keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops septentrionalis(Trimeresurus septentrionalis)Nepalese bamboo keffiyeh,
Cryptelytrops venustus(Trimeresurus venustus)Magnificent keffiyeh,

Garthius chaseni(Ovovis chaseni)Mountain keffiyeh Kinabalu,

Ovophis (not changed)

Ovophis monticola montivola Indo - Malay mountain keffiyeh,
Ovophis monticola convictus
Ovophis monticola makazayazaya
Ovophis monticola orientalis
Ovophis monticola zhaokentangi
Ovophis okinavensis Okinawan keffiyeh,
Ovophis tonkinensis Tonkin keffiyeh,
Ovophis zayuensis

Parias flavomaculatus(Trimeresurus flavomaculatus)
Parias hageni(Trimeresurus hageni)
Parias malcolmi(Trimeresurus malcolmi)
Parias mcgregori(Trimeresurus mcgregori)
Parias schultzei(Trimeresurus schultzei)
Parias sumatranus(Trimeresurus sumatranus)

Peltopelar macrolepis(Trimeresurus macrolepis)

Popeia barati(Trimeresurus popeiorum barati)
Popeia buniana
Popeia fucata(Trimeresurus fucatus, Popeia fucatus)
Popeia nebularis(Trimeresurus nebularis)
Popeia popeiorum(Trimeresurus popeiorum, Popeia popeorum)
Popeia sabahi(Trimeresurus popeiorum sabahi)


Protobothrops cornutus(Trimeresurus cornutus)
Protobothrops elegans
Protobothrops flavoviridis
Protobothrops jerdonii
Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonii
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti
Protobothrops jerdonii meridionalis
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas
Protobothrops kaulbacki
Protobothrops mucrossquamatus

Protobothrops sp. (Species not described. Market name Protobothrops sp. Henan or Protobothrops jerdonii Henan)
Protobothrops tokarensis
Protobothrops xiangchengensis(Trimeresurus xiangchengensis)


Triceratolepidophis siversorum (Many already refer to the genus Protobothrops)


Trimeresurus andalasensis
Trimeresurus borneensis
Trimeresurus brongersmai
Trimeresurus gracilis
Trimeresurus gramineus
Trimeresurus malabaricus
Trimeresurus puniceus

Trimeresurus strigatus(Protobothrops strigatus)
Trimeresurus tibetanus (Trimeresurus karanshahi, Himalayophis tibetanus)
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus
Trimeresurus wiroti


Tropidolaemus huttoni(Trimeresurus huttoni)
Tropidolaemus laticinctus(Tropidolaemus wagleri, "red form")
Tropidolaemus philippensis
Tropidolaemus subannulatus

Tropidolaemus wagleri(Trimeresurus wagleri)


Viridovipera gumprechti(Trimeresurus gumprechti)
Viridovipera medoensis(Trimeresurus medoensis)
Viridovipera stejnegeri(Trimeresurus stejnegeri)
Viridovipera truongsonensis(Trimeresurus truongsonensis)
Viridovipera vogeli(Trimeresurus vogeli)
Viridovipera yunnanensis(Trimeresurus yunnanensis)

Zhaoermia mangshanensis(Ermia mangshanensis, Trimeresurus mangshanensis) (Many already refer to the genus Protobothrops)


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See also other dictionaries:

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Arses - raibieji monarchai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Arses rus. collared flycatcher, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas - monarchiniai siauresnis terminas - akiniuotasis raibasis monarchas siauresnis terminas - australinis ... ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

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asses - plural of arsis or of ass ... Useful english dictionary