A common stove is slightly smaller than a sparrow. The male in breeding plumage has a gray top, the chest is light reddish or buffy, with a gradual transition to white on the abdomen, the wings, mask and T-shaped pattern at the end of the tail are black, the upper tail and base of the tail are bright white. The female is much paler, the mask is indistinct, brownish, the top is reddish or gray-brownish, the wings are dark-brownish, the plaque on the chest is reddish, buffy or brownish. There are females that are dimly colored, and there are bright ones, almost like males. Autumn males are colored like females and differ from them by black wings. They move on the ground by jumping, with abrupt stops, frequent squats and twitching of the tail, which is typical for all wheatears, they fly low above the ground in a kind of dancing flight, while a white spot on the base of the tail and upper tail is clearly visible. They like to sit on high stones, bumps, pillars, buildings. Weight 18-30 g, length 15-18, wing 8.8-10.5, span 28-32 cm.
Inhabits most of Eurasia. In Kazakhstan, it nests almost everywhere, both on the plain and in the highlands, from the Volga-Ural interfluve to Altai (Katon-Karagai) and Tien Shan (Talassky, Kirghizsky and Zailiysky Alatau ranges, as well as in Karatau). Does not live in Mangyshlak, Kyzylkum, Betpak-Dala, Muyunkum, Chu-Ili mountains and Balkhash region. On migration occurs everywhere.
The Eurasian wheatear is a breeding migrant. Inhabits steppes, semi-deserts and clay deserts with low grass and a high number of ground squirrels and marmots, trampled pastures near villages, alpine belt in the mountains up to 300-3300 meters in the Tien Shan. On migration occurs in open spaces. Arrives in late March - early April in the southern parts of the range, and in mid-April - early May in the north and in the mountains. Breeds in separate pairs, far from each other. The nest is built in uninhabited burrows of rodents or coastal swallows, under stones or bridges, in piles of stones, destroyed buildings. Only the female participates in the construction of the nest. Dry grass nest is lined with abundant hair and feathers. Laying takes place from late April to late June. The female lays 4-7 (usually 5-6) eggs. Both parents feed the chicks. Chicks emerge from late May to mid-August. Leaving the hole, the chicks hide in it for a long time in case of danger. On the plains two broods are possible per season, but in the mountains there is only one. Both chicks and adult birds are insectivorous. Autumn migration begins in August, most birds migrate in September.
Sources of information
V.K. Ryabitsev. "Birds of the Urals, Urals and Western Siberia". Yekaterinburg, Ural University Publishing House, 2000.
E.I. Gavrilov. "Fauna and distribution of birds in Kazakhstan". Almaty, 1999.
Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005.
AF Kovshar "Songbirds". Alma-Ata, "Kainar", 1983.
Abstract of a scientific article on biological sciences, the author of the scientific work - Matyukhin A.V., Bashmakov A.A., Parfenov A.V., Bidashko F.G.
Second edition. First publication: Matyukhin A.V., Bashmakov A.A., Parfenov A.V., Bidashko F.G. 2016. Desert Wheat (Oenanthe deserti) and small ruminants // Birds and Agriculture: Proceedings of the International. ornithol. conf. "Birds and Agriculture: Current State, Problems and Research Prospects." M .: 209-213.
Oenanthe deserti Desert Wheat and Small Cattle
the last time mint was observed here on 24 August (male and young bird). It seems that the black-headed coin is expanding its nesting area to the east. Undoubtedly, in the most eastern parts of Ukraine, he still remains a vagrant and wandering bird.
Russian Ornithological Journal 2017, Volume 26, Express issue 1437: 1724-1727
Desert sauna stove Oenanthe deserti and small ruminants
Second edition. First published in 2016 *
The dispersal of the species is often associated with climatic changes. In reality, the reasons for the appearance of a species in new places (expansion of the range) are the most commonplace.
In the essay about the desert wheatear Oenanthe deserti in the third volume of "Birds of Kazakhstan" there is an indication of the finding of this species with a brood at the Zhamansor station (Ural-Emba interfluve) by A.N. Poslavsky (apparently, personal communication) in 1960. Whether these were the first attempts to resettle the species to the north and west is now difficult to establish. In 1960-1997, the Volga-Ural interfluve was intensively studied
V.L. Shevchenko, but there is no information about the desert stove in the literature. In 1977, 1984, 1990, one of the authors of the article conducted research in the same areas in order to study the desert warbler Sylvia nana. A desert wheatear was not recorded during the years of research.
According to the data of O.V. Belyalov and M.V. Pestov, a nest was found in the Volga-Ural sands (although not indicated with chicks or with clutch) on June 11, 2006 (47 ° 02 'N, 50 ° 28' E etc.). On May 10, 2011, in the vicinity of the village of Isatai (46 ° 47 'N, 50 ° 10' E), 10 singing males were counted along the 3 km route and 2 females were recorded.
On May 25-29, 2012, in the village of Isatai, we undertook a search for nests and capture of birds. On the route of 700 m along the Astrakhan-Atyrau railway track, three pairs of desert heaters were found. In territory No. 1, both partners were caught, in a nest located in a gerbil's burrow, at its exit a still poorly flying
* Matyukhin A.V., Bashmakov A.A., Parfenov A.V., Bidashko F.G. 2016. Desert Wheat (Oenanthe deserti) and Small Cattle II Birds and Agriculture: Proceedings of the International. ornithol. conf. "Birds and Agriculture: Current State, Problems and Research Prospects." M .: 209-213.
chick (10-11 days). The second pair was noted at a distance of 300-400 m from the first. The couple fed the chicks that had flown out. A third pair was recorded 150-200 m from the second nest. According to our data for three pairs, it is obvious that these are normal clutches laid at the end of April, from which the chicks hatched in mid-May, and by the end of the month they could already fly. Thus, the second breeding cycle begins in early June. In May 2013, the species was recorded on the border of the West Kazakhstan and Atyrau regions (Kzyl-Kapkan).
Studies from 2014-2016 showed that the desert wheatear is extremely philopatric and usually returns to the same territory. Thus, a female ringed in 2012 by an adult was re-registered in the same territory in 2016 (at least 5 years). In the cold spring and early summer of 2016, the number of the desert wheatear, like the dancer Depanke Ibaetilla, was 2-3 times less than in 2012-2015.
If indeed this species was not missed earlier and settled over the past 20 years, then the question arises about the reasons for such a sharp dispersal of the species and what they are associated with. According to the information of local residents, the following changes have been noted in the Northern Caspian region over the past twenty years: 1) the migration activity of the population has increased, there is a noticeable movement of people from the sands to the centers, 2) distant pasture cattle breeding has lost ground, 3) the number of livestock has decreased several times, 4) discovered and are intensively exploiting oil fields, 5) gasification was carried out, and the local population stopped cutting down bushes for firewood.
Obviously, the reduction in the number of small ruminants and the cessation of felling of shrubs contributed to better preservation of gerbils' burrows, which led to the nesting of desert wheatears and their further dispersal. We believe that the decrease in the number of small ruminants (sheep and goats) is the main reason for the increase in the number of desert wheats, all other reasons are concomitant.
The settlement of the desert wheatear in the Northern Caspian region requires careful study, since a bird nesting in the burrows of gerbils can have an important epizootic and epidemiological significance, which was pointed out by V.L. Shevchenko even earlier, studying similar problems using the example of a dancer wheather (Shevchenko, 1969 , 1978, 1990, Shevchenko, Niyasov 1985, Shevchenko et al. 1969, 1971, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1990).
Midday Metyupev tepapiv and comb Metupev Lasha-pvstiv gerbils are massive representatives of rodents in the Northern Caspian region. In the Volga-Ural sands (Kzyl-Kapkan tract), the number of the comb sand lance varies greatly from year to year: in spring
from 1.5 (2002) to 8.1 ind./ha (2001), in autumn from 3.7 (2010) to 12.5 ind./ha (1992). The number of midday gerbils varies from year to year: in spring from 0.3 (1989) to 3.0 ind./ha (1992), in autumn from 0.6 (2005) to 4.7 ind./ha (2000).
Ten flea species were recorded on gerbils and in their burrows: Nosopsylla laeviceps, Xenopsylla conformis, Coptopsylla lamellifer, Ctenophthallmus dollichus, Rhadinopsylla cedestis, Amphypsylla rossica, Amphypsylla schel-kovnikovi. In addition to fleas, the ixodid ticks Hyalloma asiaticum and larvae and nymphs Dermacentor niveus (daghestsnicus) were noted on gerbils.
According to the instructions of Kolpakova (1950), who studied the migrations of fleas from the burrows of midday gerbils in the Northern Caspian, Xenopsylla conformis migrates more often in spring, and Coptopsylla lamellifer in autumn. According to the same author, the activity of flea migration from gerbil burrows increases in the evening hours. Obviously, when hatching and feeding chicks, the desert wheatear is attacked by the above fleas and can play a certain role in feeding gerbils' fleas.
In recent decades, animal husbandry in the Northern Caspian Sea has lost ground. The number of farm animals, especially small ruminants, has declined. It is obvious that the degradation of agriculture and the decrease in the number of small ruminants affected the preservation of the burrows of gerbils and, as a result, led to an increase in the number of desert wheatears.
Kolpakova S.A. 1950. Migrations of fleas from burrows of midday gerbils // Ectoparasites.
Fauna, biology and practical importance. M., 2: 115-128. Matyukhin A.V., Bashmakov A.A. 2013. About the expansion of the range of the desert wheatear (Oenanthe deserti) to the west // Conservation of animal diversity and hunting economy in Russia: Proceedings of the 5th international. scientific-practical conf. M .: 478-480. Shevchenko V.L. 1969. Placement and number of dancers in the Volga-Urals
skikh sands // Ornithology in the USSR. Ashgabat, 2: 715-717. Shevchenko V.L. 1974. Possible mechanisms of the introduction of plague by birds // Materials of the 6th
All-Union. ornithol. conf. M. Shevchenko V.L. 1978. The passage of the dancer wheather and the probable epizootological connection of adjacent plague foci // 2nd All-Union. conf. on bird migrations. Alma-Ata, 2: 284287.
Shevchenko V.L. 1990. On alimentary activity of fleas Frontopsylla frontalis Roths // Materials of the region. meeting. antiplague institutions for epidemiology, epizootology and prevention of especially dangerous infections. Kuibyshev: 231-233. Shevchenko V.L., Altukhov A.A., Shevchenko G.V., Grazhdanov A.K., Kanatov Yu.V., Niyasov N.A. 1983. Detection of a specific antigen of the plague microbe in the bone remains of mammals and birds in the Volga-Ural interfluve and the Trans-Urals // Prevention of natural focal infections: abstracts. report All-Union. scientific-practical conf. Stavropol: 358-359.
Shevchenko V.L., Andreeva T.A., Kaimanikov V.I. 1971. Bird fleas of the Volga-Ural interfluve and the Trans-Urals // Coll. materials of the 7th scientific. conf. antiplague. institutions of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: 445-447. Shevchenko V.L., Andreeva T.A., Kaimanikov V.I., Zharikova L.K. 1971. Towards the annual development cycle of the flea Frontopsylla frontalis // Sb. materials of the 7th scientific. conf. antiplague. institutions of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: 447-449. Shevchenko V.L., Bibikov D.I., Kaimanikov V.I. 1971. Some features of the behavior of the dancer's stove as a burrow bird // Sat. materials of the 7th scientific. conf. antiplague. institutions of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: 527-529. Shevchenko V.L., Grigoriev I.S., Altukhov A.A., Mashtanov V.I. 1980. On the cases of isolation of the causative agent of the plague (Yersinia pestis) from the dancer (Oenanthe isabellina Temm.) // Medical parasitology and parasitic diseases 3: 85-86. Shevchenko V.L., Kaimashnikov V.I., Andreeva T.A. 1969. On the Mechanisms of Conservation
natural focus of plague in the Volga-Ural sands // Zool. zhurn. 48, 2: 270-283. Shevchenko V.L., Martynov G.A., Altukhov A.A., Grazhdanov A.I., Ivanov S.I. 1981. About cases of detection in nature of plague-infected wheatears and their specific flea species // Prevention of especially dangerous infections. Alma-Ata: 152-155. Shevchenko V.L., Niyasov N.A. 1985. Migrations of the dancer-wheatear in the northern Prika-
spii // Vestn. zool. 1: 54-57. Shiranovich P.I., Chumakova T.V. 1971. On the experimental study of the transfer of fleas of rodents by birds // Zool. zhurn. 40, 4: 577-582.1971
Russian Ornithological Journal 2017, Volume 26, Express issue 1437: 1727
About the discovery of the Lapland plantain Calcarius lapponicus in Kyrgyzstan
Second edition. First published in 2016 *
On January 5, 2016, in the vicinity of the village of Semyonovka (Issyk-Kul region), one Lapland plantain Calcarius lapponicus was found in a field in a flock of horned larks Eremophila alpestris. The bird was caught; upon examination, it turned out to be a young male. Previously, this species was not found on the territory of Kyrgyzstan.
* Kulagin S.V. 2016. About the find of the Laplandian plantain (Cascan ^ 1arrochc ^) on the territory of Kyrgyzstan IIBeleit 24: 173.